A History of the International Movement of Journalists: Professionalism Versus Politics

History of journalism
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The political leadership in communist societies serves, then, not as the "gatekeeper" but as the target of professional pressure and, ultimately, the arbiter of professional demands. Professionalizing The ability of any profession to reach the point where it can build and maintain a significant amount of autonomy within a bureaucracy is a result of both the process of individual professionalization and the process of professionalization for the group itself. The latter occurs as the group moves to take an increasingly autonomous position by establishing its own formal and informal structures.

At an individual level, four elements are involved in transforming an individual into a professional: 1 the recruitment and training process; 2 work experiences and the resulting interaction with fellow professionals; 3 the structures and rules for controlling professionals' behavior that are developed within the profession and codified and reinforced by formal and informal professional associations; and 4 the impact of external images of the profession held by the society.

All of them go on in any environment in which the profession develops. Furthermore, the experience of Polish journalists indicates that political pressure and manipulation of the profession do not stop individuals from becoming professionalized. These political pressures may veil the professionalization, but, in reality, they sharpen and make more urgent the move to professionalization.

The same is true of the effect of political pressure on the professionalization of the group. In spite of the repression of the Polish journalism profession during World War II and under the Stalinist Journalists as professionals 17 system, as well as the pressure of the political elite against the development of group autonomy and ideals, professionalization has occurred.

The Polish journalism profession has followed the same course of development as have Western professions functioning without these kinds of political controls. The historical pattern common to Western professions and to the case of Polish journalists began with individuals performing the work of the profession on a full-time basis and counting on it for their main income. When individuals were committed to the profession as fulltime work, the need to perfect a body of expertise and protect work options then became greater. Professionals pressed for the establishment of training programs and, eventually, for their inclusion in university curricula.

This resulted in the development of standards for entrance into the profession that involve lengthy and costly training programs and early recruitment. It also has given the profession more exclusivity and more worth in comparison with other occupations.

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RQ1: Social presence by journalistic beat topic category The first research question asked about the characteristics typical of a journalist with strong social presence. Lara and Steven Schoofs, eds. Newspaper Research Journal, 33 4 , Having active followers who trust your news product can increase the spread of tweets such that they are seen even by non-followers Hermida, AB - This study presents a general history of how journalism as an emerging profession became internationally organized over the past one hundred and twenty years, seen mainly through the associations founded to promote the interests of journalists around the world. And the centerpieces of that popularity are the campaigns against official corruption and the illegal drug trade. Nice effort, but too much simply your own opinion.

Schools, in turn, have served as an organizational base for the establishment of a professional association, with the university affiliation simultaneously raising the status of the profession. The title of the profession often is changed to further upgrade a profession's public image.

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The association then discusses such questions as: is this a profession; what are a professionals' tasks; and, how can the quality of recruits be raised? During these discussions, conflicts develop among practitioners from different backgrounds. Campaigns to separate the competent from the incompetent begin as well.

A pecking order for the delegation of tasks develops.

The "old guard," who learned through apprenticeships and are committed to their patrons and the use of "talent" as justification for entrance into the profession, fights against newcomers who came from the prescribed university course. This generational conflict stimulates pressure to put hiring and firing under professional group control. At the same time, there is competition for "turf" between the profession and neighboring groups. All of this eventually adds to the development of an entire system, both formal and informal, to regulate professional behavior and emphasize the role of the professional in serving society.

It frequently involves political agitation to win the support of law to protect the "turf" of professional work and the profession's own code of ethics.

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To further protect their "turf" and 18 Poland's journalists their status, professional groups also develop rules to eliminate those who disgrace the group, to reduce internal competition and to emphasize that only a member of the profession can provide certain services to the society. These crises are even less fully and permanently resolved in the communist world. Leadership changes and increase or decrease in political pressure bring each one to the surface again and again.

The demographic devastation of World War II in Poland further created an age imbalance that exacerbated the generational conflict and the need for issues to be reconsidered and battled through with each generation. And, the prohibitions on visible and independent group activity make any full public resolution and commitment impossible. Professionals and the policy process The nature and significance of professional group and individual professionals' involvement in the policy process is dependent on more, though, than the invitation and interest of the political elite in both Soviet bloc and Western states.

The nature of an issue and its relevance to different individuals or groups determine who gets involved and how. Which professionals and professional groups get involved in the policy process depends, as well, not simply on who the policy-makers want to hear but also on the nature of a given profession and the profession's own priorities.

Finally, the stage at which groups become involved in a decision or policy and the impact they have are outgrowths of the nature of the policy itself as well as the political leadership's interest in that policy. Some have a direct impact on a profession, its work and its compensation. Formal professional groups play significant roles in organizing around these issues and advocating policies that increase the profession's standing and its benefits. They also act to strengthen professionals' power and the power of the professional association. In doing this, professional groups claim authority and responsibility for themselves.

Other kinds of policies are relevant to professionals only when their expertise is relevant to resolving issues on an individual or informal group basis. In these cases, normally, the policy has no direct impact on an individual's life or work. The professional serves as a repre- Journalists as professionals 19 sentative of other groups through the use of his technical expertise and recognized knowledge in a particular area.

Finally, in some policies, professionals are involved as policy administrators. The passage of these policies affects the profession's role but not necessarily either its own interests or work patterns. In this final case, professional involvement occurs through advocacy by the professional association or experts from the profession and through policy administration. Issues that affect professionals' own lives and work are regarded by professionals and their associations as their exclusive domain.

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A History of the International Movement of Journalists. Professionalism Versus Politics. Authors: Nordenstreng, K., Björk, U.J., Beyersdorf, F., Høyer, S., Lauk, E. Article Information, PDF download for A History of the International Movement of Journalists: Professionalism Versus Politics · Open epub for A History of the.

The tendency is to keep the public and the state government away from what they see as professional concerns. In doing this, professional associations, both formal and informal, become "private governments" providing services and material benefits to their members. They also set up structures to regulate individual behavior within the professional community. Finally, they move to represent the interests of the profession to the public government. Internally, each professional association has its own governance.

This governance is determined by the profession's goals, the nature of its membership, and its members' socio-economic positions and needs as well as the association's past history. To do this, they divide professionals up into sections reflecting the varied interests and foci of the group's members. By establishing and maintaining this control and coordination, professional organizations influence the public regulation of the profession and its work.

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They also influence the profession's membership and its public image. This internal structure is not designed to insure democracy and full participation of all professionals within the organization. Dissent within the profession weakens the organization's negotiating position. So dissent and deviation, either in professional work patterns or be- 20 Poland's journalists havior, are discouraged both formally and informally. As a service organization, the professional association is involved in lobbying and providing guidance to the government on complex issues.

Group democracy and action are replaced by power invested in a permanent bureaucracy and a relatively stable and identifiable elite. So, crucial issues are seldom discussed and voted on by the profession as a whole.

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Instead, they are normally handled informally by the profession's leaders. Ironically, though, however strong and visible that formal elite is, it is not the only professional elite. In each profession, there is, on the one hand, a parallel elite of individuals whose professional work is seen as excellent. On the other hand, those who make a career out of professional politics and representation are a self-selected few. They tend to be persons of high, but not top, prestige and authority within the profession. Their work is normally not a model for the profession.

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In fact, because movement up to the top of the professional organization is usually a result of gradual advancement up through lower level professional offices, most of those in the formal organizational elite spend years of their careers working less than full-time in real professional work. Their relationship with the profession as a whole is skewed by their experiences as bureaucrats and lobbyists. As a result, in Western democracies where professional organizations' dynamics have been studied, these individuals, the bureaucrats, are identified with the professional world they represent and not stellar professional work.

How to protect journalists from political pressures

Structurally, professional associations in communist societies are hybrids of the two most common forms of professional organization: the guild model of equality among lower level professionals in various workplace and speciality groups71 and the pyramidal hierarchy model of a bureaucratic structure working to protect the profession against external bureaucracies. This external pressure makes the nonbureaucratic guild model less effective because the ruling bureaucracy of the Party and state both mandates and then responds only to corresponding professional bureaucracies.

Professionalism Versus Politics

This same pressure, though, also exists in increasingly bureaucratized Western states. For professional groups in Western and communist societies who contribute to policy-making as advisors or administrators, policy-making is a complex process. It has many stages at which individuals and groups can visibly and invisibly enter and impact on policies.

Involvement in the early stages allows individuals and groups to define the issues and solutions they want to consider.