Mechanics

Mechanics, Part 2
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For everyday phenomena, however, Newton's three laws of motion remain the cornerstone of dynamics, which is the study of what causes motion. In analogy to the distinction between quantum and classical mechanics, Einstein 's general and special theories of relativity have expanded the scope of Newton and Galileo 's formulation of mechanics. The differences between relativistic and Newtonian mechanics become significant and even dominant as the velocity of a massive body approaches the speed of light. Relativistic corrections are also needed for quantum mechanics, although general relativity has not been integrated.

The two theories remain incompatible, a hurdle which must be overcome in developing a theory of everything.

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The main theory of mechanics in antiquity was Aristotelian mechanics. In the Middle Ages, Aristotle's theories were criticized and modified by a number of figures, beginning with John Philoponus in the 6th century. A central problem was that of projectile motion , which was discussed by Hipparchus and Philoponus. He said that an impetus is imparted to a projectile by the thrower, and viewed it as persistent, requiring external forces such as air resistance to dissipate it.

So he concluded that continuation of motion is attributed to the inclination that is transferred to the object, and that object will be in motion until the mayl is spent. He also claimed that projectile in a vacuum would not stop unless it is acted upon. This conception of motion is consistent with Newton's first law of motion, inertia.

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Which states that an object in motion will stay in motion unless it is acted on by an external force. On the question of a body subject to a constant uniform force, the 12th-century Jewish-Arab scholar Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi born Nathanel, Iraqi, of Baghdad stated that constant force imparts constant acceleration. According to Shlomo Pines , al-Baghdaadi's theory of motion was "the oldest negation of Aristotle 's fundamental dynamic law [namely, that a constant force produces a uniform motion], [and is thus an] anticipation in a vague fashion of the fundamental law of classical mechanics [namely, that a force applied continuously produces acceleration].

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Mechanics is the area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the. Mechanics, science concerned with the motion of bodies under the action of forces, including the special case in which a body remains at rest. Of first concern in.

While he did not specify that these forces be equal, it is still an early version of the third law of motion which states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Influenced by earlier writers such as Ibn Sina [10] and al-Baghdaadi, [13] the 14th-century French priest Jean Buridan developed the theory of impetus , which later developed into the modern theories of inertia , velocity , acceleration and momentum.

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This work and others was developed in 14th-century England by the Oxford Calculators such as Thomas Bradwardine , who studied and formulated various laws regarding falling bodies. The concept that the main properties of a body are uniformly accelerated motion as of falling bodies was worked out by the 14th-century Oxford Calculators. Two central figures in the early modern age are Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton. Galileo's final statement of his mechanics, particularly of falling bodies, is his Two New Sciences There is some dispute over priority of various ideas: Newton's Principia is certainly the seminal work and has been tremendously influential, and the systematic mathematics therein did not and could not have been stated earlier because calculus had not been developed.

However, many of the ideas, particularly as pertain to inertia impetus and falling bodies had been developed and stated by earlier researchers, both the then-recent Galileo and the less-known medieval predecessors. Precise credit is at times difficult or contentious because scientific language and standards of proof changed, so whether medieval statements are equivalent to modern statements or sufficient proof, or instead similar to modern statements and hypotheses is often debatable.

Two main modern developments in mechanics are general relativity of Einstein , and quantum mechanics , both developed in the 20th century based in part on earlier 19th-century ideas. The development in the modern continuum mechanics, particularly in the areas of elasticity, plasticity, fluid dynamics, electrodynamics and thermodynamics of deformable media, started in the second half of the 20th century. The often-used term body needs to stand for a wide assortment of objects, including particles, projectiles , spacecraft , stars , parts of machinery , parts of solids , parts of fluids gases and liquids , etc.

Other distinctions between the various sub-disciplines of mechanics, concern the nature of the bodies being described.

https://kinun-houju.com/wp-content/bumeharoq/1143.php Particles are bodies with little known internal structure, treated as mathematical points in classical mechanics. Rigid bodies have size and shape, but retain a simplicity close to that of the particle, adding just a few so-called degrees of freedom , such as orientation in space.

Otherwise, bodies may be semi-rigid, i. These subjects have both classical and quantum divisions of study. For instance, the motion of a spacecraft, regarding its orbit and attitude rotation , is described by the relativistic theory of classical mechanics, while the analogous movements of an atomic nucleus are described by quantum mechanics. Note that there is also the " theory of fields " which constitutes a separate discipline in physics, formally treated as distinct from mechanics, whether classical fields or quantum fields. But in actual practice, subjects belonging to mechanics and fields are closely interwoven.

Thus, for instance, forces that act on particles are frequently derived from fields electromagnetic or gravitational , and particles generate fields by acting as sources.

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In fact, in quantum mechanics, particles themselves are fields, as described theoretically by the wave function. The following are categorized as being part of quantum mechanics :. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about an area of scientific study. For other uses, see Mechanic disambiguation. Second law of motion. History Timeline. Newton's laws of motion.

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Analytical mechanics Lagrangian mechanics Hamiltonian mechanics Routhian mechanics Hamilton—Jacobi equation Appell's equation of motion Udwadia—Kalaba equation Koopman—von Neumann mechanics. Core topics. Circular motion Rotating reference frame Centripetal force Centrifugal force reactive Coriolis force Pendulum Tangential speed Rotational speed.

Classical mechanics Old quantum theory Bra—ket notation Hamiltonian Interference. Advanced topics.

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Quantum annealing Quantum chaos Quantum computing Density matrix Quantum field theory Fractional quantum mechanics Quantum gravity Quantum information science Quantum machine learning Perturbation theory quantum mechanics Relativistic quantum mechanics Scattering theory Spontaneous parametric down-conversion Quantum statistical mechanics. Main articles: History of classical mechanics and History of quantum mechanics. Main article: Aristotelian mechanics. Main article: Theory of impetus. Play media. A History of Classical Mechanics.

Classical Mechanics. West Petal Nagar, New Delhi. Build a chain of words by adding one letter at a time.

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Definition of mechanics. First Known Use of mechanics , in the meaning defined at sense 1. Learn More about mechanics. Resources for mechanics Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared. Dictionary Entries near mechanics mechanic art mechanician mechanico- mechanics mechanics' institute mechanism mechanismic. Statistics for mechanics Look-up Popularity. Time Traveler for mechanics The first known use of mechanics was in See more words from the same year.

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