For seven years, the Romans marched and battled across what is now Scotland. Finally, in AD 83, they fought the final battle at Mons Graupius where 10, Caledonians were slaughtered with only Roman dead. It proved the high-water mark of Roman power in Britain.
Following unrest elsewhere in the empire, the north of Scotland was abandoned and Rome's forces began their long retreat. Never again would Roman arms stand on the edge of the known world.
Its heights offered artillery observation that made even approaching the ridge virtually suicidal. Pessimistic about the ability of depleted and demoralized French units to capture the position, General Henri Gouraud was granted the use of two American divisions: the veteran 2nd 'Indianhead' Division, including the 4th Marine Brigade, and the untested 36th 'Arrowhead' Division of the Texas and Oklahoma National Guard. This fully illustrated book describes this Allied offensive with American troops in the vanguard, and shows how despite the heavy losses it sustained to both manpower and supporting armour, they eventually forced the Germans to abandon most of the region in one of the largest withdrawals of the war.
Twenty-three Gothas had set out to attack London in this first bomber raid, but heavy cloud forced them to target Folkestone and the Shorncliffe army camp instead. It was the start of a new phase of the war aimed at destroying the morale of the British people. London's defences were quickly overhauled to face this new threat, providing the basis for Britain's defence during World War II. This book tells the story of the Gotha and the massive Staaken 'Giant' bomber raids against London. A month earlier the Japanese had launched Operation Ha-Go, which was intended as a feint to draw British attention away from the Imphal area.
But British forces employed new defensive techniques to counter the Japanese infiltration tactics. These tactics were again employed on a larger scale when Imphal and Kohima were surrounded during Operation U-Go. Kohima took place in two stages.
From 3 to 16 April the Japanese attempted to capture Kohima Ridge. As the small garrison held out against fierce and repeatedly desperate attempts by the Japanese 31st Division to destroy them, so the British 2nd Division fought to break through and relieve them. Then for over two months British and Indian troops counter-attacked to drive the Japanese from the positions they had already captured.
The battle ended on June 22 when British and Indian troops from Kohima and Imphal met at Milestone , thus ending the siege.
Operation Market-Garden (1): The American Airborne Missions . Arnhem Operation 'Market Garden' (Campaign) Series: Campaign (Book ) . In this short volume Zaloga provides an overview of the US airborne. Buy Operation Market-Garden (1) (Campaign ) by Steven J. Zaloga, research that reveals the successes of those American airborne missions, .. In this short volume Zaloga provides an overview of the US airborne contribution.
What happened next became the most infamous incident of the war - and one which forms an integral part of James Fenimore Cooper's classic novel The Last of the Mohicans - the 'massacre' of Fort William Henry. As the garrison prepared to march for Fort Edward, a flood of enraged Native Americans swept over the column, unleashing an unstoppable tide of slaughter. Cooper's version has colored our view of the incident, so what really happened?
Ian Castle details new research on the campaign, including some fascinating archaeological work that has taken place over the last 20 years, updating the view put forward by The Last of the Mohicans. Within hours, tragedy struck. Some rangers ran into a French scouting party and in the fierce skirmish that followed Lord Howe, the darling of the army, was shot through the heart. The army was shattered at the loss, but Abercromby went to pieces. He decided to attack Montcalm's completed breastworks head-on.
Battalion after battalion was sacrificed, the most famous of these hopeless assaults being that of the Black Watch. With the failure of his plan and the exhaustion of his army Abercromby retreated to the foot of Lake George - Montcalm had saved Canada, with Abercromby's help. Although Wellesely's forces were outnumbered, and a sizable contingent of the Spanish ran away, he had chosen a superb defensive position and was able to beat off successive French attacks, though at a heavy cost in terms of casualties.
Although the French had withdrawn, leaving Wellesley the master of the field, his high casualties and approaching French reinforcements convinced Wellesley to withdraw to Portugal. His foray into Spain had an enormous effect on Spanish morale as they realized they were not alone in the struggle. British redcoats had had got to within 70km of Madraid, and they would return in future years.
Catching the US forces completely by surprise, the Japanese bombed the major airfields and quickly gained air supremacy. They followed with a full-scale invasion that quickly rolled up US-Filipino opposition and captured Manila. Meanwhile US forces, under the leadership of the Douglas MacArthur, created a series of defensive lines to try and stop the Japanese advance. Despite their efforts, they were continually pushed back until they held nothing more than the small island of Corregidor.
Nearly five months after the invasion began, the US-Filipino forces surrendered, and were led off on the 'Bataan Death March'. This book covers the full campaign from the planning through to the execution, looking at the various battles and strategies that were employed by both sides in the battle for the Philippines. In the face of stubborn Japanese resistance, including the first systematic use of Kamikaze attacks, the US forces ground slowly forwards before another amphibious assault took the vital position of Ormoc in the last decisive battle of the campaign.
Containing the capital of Manila, vital natural resources, and thousands of Allied prisoners of war, the triumph at Luzon would be a vital step on the road to victory as the Americans continued to island-hop their way towards the Japanese home islands. This book details one of the hardest-fought campaigns of the Pacific War with Japanese fatalities topping , on Luzon. Emphasizing the differences in Japanese and American strategy, and detailing the combat operations of the campaign, this volume tells the story of how MacArthur kept his promise to return and liberate the Philippines.
The most ambitious was Constantine, who sought to eliminate his rivals and reunite the Empire. His first target was Maxentius, who held Rome, the symbolic heart of the Empire.
Inspired by a dream sent by the Christian God, at the Milvian Bridge region just north of Rome, he routed Maxentius' army and pursued the fugitives into the river Tiber. The victory secured Constantine's hold on the western half of the Roman Empire and confirmed his Christian faith, but many details of this famous battle remain obscured. This new volume identifies the location of the battlefield and explains the tactics Constantine used to secure a victory that triggered the fundamental shift from paganism to Christianity.
In , the Emperor Constantius appointed his year-old cousin Julian as his Caesar in the provinces of Gaul with command of all troops in the region. Having recaptured the city of Cologne, Julian planned to trap the Alemanni in a pincer movement, but when the larger half of his army was forced into retreat, he was left facing a much larger German force outside the walls of the city of Strasbourg. This new study relates the events of this epic battle as the experience and training of the Roman forces prevailed in the face of overwhelming German numbers.
If Nationalist China survived and the American forces from the Pacific were in or able to achieve beachheads on its coast, China might also serve as a staging ground for U. This new study relates the events of this epic battle as the experience and training of the Roman forces prevailed in the face of overwhelming German numbers. I had seven Americans and five Britishers with me. With expert analysis, detailed color illustrations and a narrative, this book explains the origins of the attack, its planning and execution, and what happened in the aftermath. Taking place over the course of a month, the inevitable battle was to be a close-run affair, with both sides claiming victory. The photographs featured here are each based on a concept or feeling designed to inform and recreate a network of field experiences that are complemented by vignettes, poems, lyrics to songs, and engaging text.
Spain's failed invasion of and the mutinies that followed convinced Dutch leaders that they now should go on the offensive. One led an unproven new model army, the other Spain's 'unbeatable' Tercios, each around 11,men strong. The Dutch wanted to land near Nieuwpoort, take it and then march on to Dunkirk, northern home port of the Spanish fleet, but they were cut off by the resurgent and reunited Spanish army.
The two forces then met on the beach and in the dunes north of Nieuwpoort. This book uses specially commissioned artwork to reveal one of the greatest battles of the Eighty Years' War - one whose influence on military theory and practice ever since has been highly significant. It heralded the rise of Florence to a dominant position over the area of Tuscany and was one of the last occasions when the Italian city militias contested a battle, with the 14th century seeing the rise of the condottiere in Italy's Wars.
This is thanks in no small part to the exploits of the renowned English mercenary or condottiero captain, Sir John Hawkwood. Commanding the Paduan army, he led them to a stunning victory.
watch This new study challenges the conventional story of the battle, relocating it to the other side of the Adige River, and showing that Hawkwood was no mere disciple of his previous commander, the Black Prince-he was a highly talented and intelligent general in his own right. Using specially commissioned full-color artwork, this fascinating book shows how Hawkwood used his own acumen, and the training, skills, and discipline of his very experienced condottieri, to defeat his opponents at Castagnaro. Following the disastrous retreat from Burma in April , China had become isolated from re-supply except for the dangerous air route for US transports over the Himalaya Mountains.
The Burma Road, which ran from Lashio south of Myitkyina through the mountains to Kunming was closed as a supply route from Rangoon after the Japanese conquest. Without military assistance, China would be forced to surrender and Imperial Japanese Army forces could be diverted to other Pacific war zones.
This is the history of the ambitious joint Allied assault led by American Lt. Joseph W Stilwell and featuring British, American, and Chinese forces as they clashed with three skilled regiments of the Japanese 18th Division. Packed with first-hand accounts, specially commissioned artwork, maps and illustrations and dozens of rare photographs this book reveals the incredible Allied attack on Myitkyina. Not deigning to spend itself against the extensive fortifications of France's Maginot Lines, Hitler's Wehrmacht planned to advance its of divisions through Belgium and northern France in order to destroy the Allied forces there and gain territory from which to prosecute continued combat operations against France and England.
Beginning on 10 May , this title follows the fortunes of Heeresgruppe A as its three Panzer Korps moved stealthily through the dark, hilly, and thickly forested Ardennes in southern Belgium before forcing a passage across the river Meuse and racing through France to the Channel in one of the most daring campaigns in history.