In these popular pieces, Brown does not attempt to present Indian life with the sympathetic understanding that he displayed elsewhere.
In his journal, for example, he several times criticized those who characterized the Indian as an idle malcontent. These critics, he maintained, had not seen beyond the degenerates loitering around the outskirts of Victoria. In his popular pieces, however, the Indian is almost invariably depicted as mercenary, vindictive, and treacherous. Perhaps Brown's most rewarding writings are among those that aimed to combine instruction and entertainment.
In the Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition explored areas of the Colony of Vancouver From his arrival in Victoria in May , Robert Brown had been working in the colony as a seed collector for the British Columbia Botanical. Robert Brown, a twenty-one-year-old Scotsman, arrived on Vancouver Island in for the purpose of collecting seeds, roots, and plants for the Botanical.
Certainly he came to be associated with those works of "popular education" that were considered so improving in the Victorian era. His contributions to H. In early numbers of this compendium, he presented in four parts a fairly detailed account of the expedition's progress to Port San Juan—but at this point he broke off.
Buttle, with McCausland, Antoine and two other natives who joined the expedition from Oinimitis, the native village at the mouth of the Bear River, explored the right branch now called the Ursus River , while Hancock and the rest proceeded up the left branch Bedwell River. This M. Duncan, B. On June 25, , Ralph wrote: At Thesethemesarenotnewbut havebeengiven recent, vitalexpression bySuzanne ZellerandTrevorLevere,among others. More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. A list of his publications relating to the northwest coast may be found in the Bergen Peters study cited above, pp.
His later contributions to Illustrated Travels are pieces of fiction, rather complicatedly connected with actual events on the expedition. Of these, "In Pawn in an Indian Village" is his most ambitious story, and its plot again emphasizes the meanness and treachery of the Indians. In his detailed account of a "potlatch" near Alberni, Brown writes as an astute and appreciative observer see pp. In contrast, his account of the crossing of the VIEE from Alberni to Qualicum is explicitly included to provide "a picture of Indian life—treachery, duplicity, and uncertainty—more graphic than could have been given by the author in any other form.
He had been forced to recognize that he would be unable to gain a footing in the academic world, and his need for a steadier income had become more acute. For in , he had married Kristiane Augusta Maria Eleonora Rudmose, the daughter of a teacher who resided at Ferslev, near Copenhagen. Subsequently, in , he became a member of the editorial staff of The Standard London , and he continued to work on this newspaper until his death in It is difficult to feel that Brown's capacities were fully engaged by his works of popular education or by his journalism, and his later years seem to have been those of a disappointed and driven man.
According to A. Wilson, he was determined that his children would not suffer from financial hardship, and he devoted himself to popular writings to achieve this end. His fingers itched to hold the pen, to handle a book. In Countries of the World , for example, his account of the trek from Sooke to Victoria covered about ten pages— the same number in which he treats all of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, and California.
Caught between the demands of popular journalism and scholarly reporting, he seems to have recalled with especial pleasure the peacefulness of the region: "It is a true summer morning.
All is still. The sweet tinkle of the cattle bells, as their owners crop the fern in the woods, strikes our ear through the fog. As he recalled that day, however, it was the town's position as a place apart that appealed to him. Similarly, when he reflected on the expedition, memories of hunger, disappointment, and dissension slipped from his mind; it was the camaraderie that he recalled—"the early friendship which united us all [and which] has never been dissolved.
In , a year before his death, he received from Dr.
Newcombe a letter in which New3 Robert Brown, photocombe requested that he send him graph, inscribed on reverse: copies of his articles on British "Aug. I passed in that region some of the most instructive years of my early manhood at a time when I did not know six people in it who had any knowledge of or interest in Natural History. This contribution consisted of the introduction and explanatory notes for an edition of The Adventures of John Jewitt In this edition Brown drew freely on his own experience on Vancouver Island, almost ninety years after Jewitt had been held captive there.
Again, it is the remoteness of the region that Brown contemplated. In particular, he was concerned to provide details about the so-called "Aht" tribes of the west coast. Indeed, he remarked that his introduction was primarily intended "as a slight contribution to the meagre chronicles of a dying race. Earlier, as an explorer, he had tended to view things with a glad eye to future development. Now he is content to look back. Brown to Henry Cole, i Oct.
This publication first appeared in serial form between and according to the British Library Catalogue. Page references throughout are to an undated edition in my possession. Subsequent difficulties between Brown and the British Columbia Botanical Association may have in part resulted from the Association's earlier disappointment. See J. Fletcher and William H. In Vancouver Island and British Columbia: Their History, Resources, and Prospects London: Longman , Matthew Macfie remarked that "in all cases labour commands at least three times the remuneration it does in England, and often much more than that" References to the secretary's letters to Brown are subsequently indicated in the text by date.
References to Brown's letters to the Association are subsequently indicated in the text by date.
Rattray received second prize for his essay in a contest sponsored by the Colonial Government. Hendrickson, I, See pp. For a list of drawings made by Whymper on the expedition, see Appendix i, pp. It is noted 2. He became manager of the Hudson's Bay Company store in Esquimalt and the city engineer. Other applications cited here are from this collection. William S. Lewis and Naojiro Murakami Spokane Governor Douglas referred to him as Thomas William Anthony and subsequently as Thomas Williams and William Anthony when intent on describing him as "a British subject settled in the Cowegin Country," after Tomo had been shot in the arm and chest by a Somenos Indian: quoted in W.
Olseri, Water over the Wheel Chemainus, B. Brown's spelling of the name varies, but I have used throughout his most common form: Tomo. Tomo had been a member of Adam Home's expedition from Qualicum to Alberni in and a member of Pemberton's expedition from Cowichan to Nitinat in A detailed account of Pemberton's journey is provided by a participant: Captain T.
https://toegluclanew.tk In an article entitled "On the Discoveries of Mr. John Jeffrey and Mr. Robert Brown For a detailed account of parts of this expedition, see Countries of the World, 2. Coleman, "Mountaineering in the Pacific," Harper's Magazine 39 i Coleman's successful ascent of Mount Baker in is described in this article On the cover of the holograph, Brown has written: "This is the M. Petermann made that trans.
In a letter of 14 Jan. Fellows, he wrote of his visit to Copenhagen: "I Countries of the World, Illustrated Travels, i, Brown to Newcombe, 17 Nov. Adventures ofjewitt, The article provides a succinct account of what was known of the interior of the island at this time and of Brown's own travels in Editors Daily Chronicle:—I am glad to see that the desire for a more extensive knowledge of the general features of the interior of this Island is at length assuming a material shape, and that the present season will probably put us in possession of more information regarding its real character than we have hitherto collected from all sources.
That the committee may be in a better position to judge which are the points they should first direct their attention to, I will, as shortly as I can, recount what has already been ascertained, and I believe that much of what I shall state is only known to a few persons in the Island, and I think it will be of some interest to nearly all your readers. FIRST, it is a very mistaken idea to suppose that the Island has not been crossed in several places, though indeed our maps seem to have derived very little benefit from such journey.
Commencing from the South it is unnecessary to speak of the districts lying on the coast, such as Victoria, Esquimalt, Lake, Metchosin, Highland, Saanich, Cowichan, etc. Douglas , the present Surveyor General made a journey up the great Cowichan River to a large lake in the interior [Cowichan Lake], and from that to the coast, at what is generally known as False Nitinat.
Between Somenos Plains and the other large lake he found many lands eligible for settlement, but requiring to be cleared; soil good, game, fish and timber; surrounding country of a cheerful character, and often grand. The same remarks will apply to the land in the vicinity of the Great Lake. The rest of the district was for the most part rocky or mountainous. It is worthy of note that gold-bearing rocks were met with in the mountains, and sandstone, with small seams of coal in, about Nitinat.
He noticed in the inlet one large cliff of blueish primitive limestone. This journey has not, as far as I am aware, been made since then by any individual whose report is unquestioned, and the whole tract is worthy of renewed and thorough examination. Mayne, R.
Hecate, starting somewhere near Barclay Sound and coming out near Departure Bay. At the head of the Alberni canal is a trail to Quallicom river, a little above Nanaimo. It is frequently crossed by Indians, and by the men at the Alberni mills. It was first traveled by the Hudson Bay Co. It measures about 18 miles; soil gravelly, and the trail lying for most part through burnt wood. A ridge of mountains occupies the middle of the island here, running in the direction of its length, but not unbroken in their elevation. A better road might be cut to the south of Home's Lake.
It is merely of course as they all are, an Indian trail, and impossible to be followed without a guide. A trail branches off from this to Comox, occasionally passed over by one or two of the Opischesnat [Opetchesaht] Indians, who are married to Comox women, but now more rarely than formerly, a deadly feud existing between the Barclay Sound and Comox and Nanaimo natives—the latter a few years ago having come over the trail, and nearly exterminated three tribes.
The triangular piece of country bounded by Pemberton's Cowichan Lake Exploration, the Alberni canal, and the Alberni-Quallicom trail is totally unknown, with the exception of a strip on the coast, comprehending the Nanaimo districts, which has been described roughly in the reports of the Crown Lands Committee, and slightly portrayed on the District maps and the Admiralty charts.
Though the one I am about to mention can scarcely be called a trans-insular trail, yet as the exploration opened up a large portion of the island hitherto unexamined, it is most worthy of note, and before long will be more fully described in all its minutiae in another place by the explorer, Dr. Robert Brown. He ascended a river at the head of the Alberni canal, and arrived at a many-armed lake [Sproat Lake], about 18 to 11 miles long in its longest axis.
At the head of the longest arm, he found it to be fed by a large river,6 which he ascended for some distance, but had to return through shear starvation. The Indians told him it flowed out of a large lake in the vicinity of the country of the Clayo-quots, and that they sometimes ascended it. They told him that by it Clay-o-quot Sound could be reached in two "Suns. The river by which he ascended was studded on both banks with the villages of two tribes, the Opis Chesaats and Shes-haats, and bordered by several small prairies, covered with fern, which is a sign of good land.
The Several large creeks flow in, along the banks of one of which is a large track of good open land, the principal hunting ground of the Indians.
This creek would afford good water power for mills of any description. The feeding river flows for a considerable way through flat thickly wooded land, subject to inundations, soil good, timber mostly hemlock, Abies Bridget, and Douglas pine, Pinus Douglasii with a little yew, Taxus Lindleyana.